Thursday, May 21, 2020
OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT AT TESCO PLC: MANAGING FINANCE, PEOPLE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AT THE ORGANISATION Abstract In this assignment, we will take the case of Tesco to understand the strategies it used to manage finance at the company. The second part of the assignment will concentrate of the human resource management practices adopted by Tesco and the finance part of the assignment will be concerning the information system strategy at Tesco. Table of Contents IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..4 PART A: Managing FinanceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..4 PART B: Managing PeopleÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.8 PART C: Managing InformationÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..13 ReferencesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦16 Introduction In thisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A financial abatement mainly consists of four main components which are balance sheets, profit and loss account, cash flow statements and income statement. Each component has different function which can be lined out as: Balance Sheets: It provides the financial situation of the company as a whole. It records the tangible and intangible goods that the company owes or owns. The three categories in a balance sheet are assets, liabilities and shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ equity. The assets are basically categorised in to current assets, fixed assets and other assets. The liabilities section of the balance sheet consists of current liabilities and long term liabilities. The shareholders equity represents the net worth of the company. In balance sheet, the shareholderÃ¢â¬â¢s equity is calculated as the sum of liabilities and net worth. Profit and Loss Account: it summarizes the incomes and expenses of a company in a given period of time. This includes accruals which are incomes that will be realised only after the particular profit and account was prepared. Cash Flow Statements: These statements are very important to predict the future flow of finance in the company. The cash flow statement is concerned with understanding if there is enough money for all the activities and expenses of the company and stands as a good measure for a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s liquidity. Income Statement: The income statements are used toShow MoreRelatedOperations Management in Tesco1597 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhy is Operations Management so important in this organisation? In order to define why Operations Management is needed in an organisation knowledge of operations management is required. Operations management is an area of management concerned with overseeing, designing, and redesigning business operations in the production of goods and/or services. It includes the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient by using as few resources as needed, and effective in termsRead MoreTesco Logistics and Operations Management584 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesWhat is operations management? Ã¢â¬Å"Operations management is key to achieving competitive advantage for organizations, whether they are in manufacturing industry or service industry. Operations management addresses the questions an organization faces in its choice of products and manufacturing technology, utilization of capacity, maintenance of quality, costing and sourcing of materials, and customer handling policies.Ã¢â¬ What is logistics? Ã¢â¬Å"Logistics is the art of managing the supply chain and scienceRead MoreFunctions Of Operations Management At Tesco Plc3232 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pages Part-1 Introduction Operations management has gained significant importance among academicians and business practitioners in recent years because managing business operations profoundly impacts an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s costs, and is therefore a basic key to achieving the competitive advantage (Barnes, 2008). Organisations can operate its business successfully only if it is able to manage its operation activities efficiently and effectively by making best use of the resources at its disposal and by ensuingRead MoreSystem and Operation Management. Critical Evaluation of Relevant Issue. Tesco Case Study4502 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesIntroduction The 21st century has brought about several improvements in business strategies and operations. 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Tesco was establishedRead MoreManagement Role : Store Manager Essay836 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesActivity 7 Management role - store manager: Leadership Management skills Ã¢â¬â For a manager within Tesco these two combined skills are the most important within the store as the store manager is in charge of the day-to-day operations of the store and how well/smoothly the store is run. Failure to have these could lead a lack of control of staff and the store, which could in the long haul lead to loss of money if problems arrive. Experience in the job Ã¢â¬â The candidate for the job will almostRead MoreThe Relationship Between Unique Resources and Competitive Advantage for Mega-Retailers1773 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswhile in other cases such attributes may be less easily discernible. To gain some fresh insights into this area with respect to the global retailing sector, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning Walmart, Carrefour and Tesco to determine the extent to which their respective competitive advantages are due to the possession of unique resources. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the papers conclusion. Review and Analysis Background and Overview Read MoreHuman Resource Management Is The Key Approach For The Organization1680 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesoriented and stability. Human Resource Management plays a main role in the business to carry out greatest capability in an extremely fulfilling way. Human Resource Management is the key approach for the organizations. The people working independently and collectively together contribute for the success of the objectives in the commerce. It is as well termed as personnel management as the procedure is involved in organizing people. Human Resource Management employee s people, build up their resourcesRead Morebusne1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDue 7/02/2014 Aim The aim of this report is to analysis a case study about an organization called Tesco. In this analysis, I will discuss the purpose of the key business function in the organization. Furthermore, I will analyze the power-grid interest of TescoÃ¢â¬â¢s stakeholder. In addition, I will analyze the key issue in the managing stakeholder. Finally, I will show a SWOT analysis of Tesco. Introduction The business industry is getting wider and competitive. According to HannaganRead MoreData and Technology in Business1053 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesData and Technology The successful companys activities (management) are related to collection, storage, and analysis and interpreting data. The purpose of data collection is to get hold of information and to continuously record and to make decisions on key issues. Data collection is the storage of data and prepare for the future process. Moreover, every piece information is a valuable resource in business, such as cost of production, share prices and exchange rates, company reports and market research
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
CHAPTER TWO Inquisitive D. H. Lawrence versus Anally Retentive Mr. Freud Horace GregoryÃ¢â¬â¢s short (but perfectly formed) D. H. Lawrence: Pilgrim of the Apocalypse (1933) explains how LawrenceÃ¢â¬â¢s two essays on psychoanalysis were motivated by his desire to understand. What he needed to understand was why he was as he was; how the development of masculinity and gender identity were influenced and how obstacles such as an over-possessive mother might impair these developments. Hence, his works on psychoanalysis were not written to be an acceptance of FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s doctrines but rather a critical approach to them. Gregory maintains the LawrenceÃ¢â¬â¢s essays on psychoanalysis Ã¢â¬Ëoffered him the means of checking-back results of his convictions, and Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦What has to be realised, therefore, is that LawrenceÃ¢â¬â¢s introduction to psychoanalysis is different to his introduction to Freud and the two should not be confused. Arguably, though, on the question of understanding the influences on shaping oneÃ¢â ¬â¢s masculinity and gender identity, LawrenceÃ¢â¬â¢s encounters with FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s work were a turning point for him. Indeed, his assessments of Freud were that he was a pan-sexualist, that is, one Ã¢â¬Ëwho makes sex accountable for everything,Ã¢â¬â¢ and his Ã¢â¬ËreasonedÃ¢â¬â¢ assessment of Freud (and his work) was that he was a Ã¢â¬Ëpsychiatric quack.Ã¢â¬â¢ Ironically, although sections in Sons and Lovers deal with situations that closely suggest what Freud called the Oedipus complex, Lawrence had written the book before he came to FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s work and before he mentioned Freud in his letters. Therefore, when we talk of the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s oedipal quality and analyse LawrenceÃ¢â¬â¢s assessment of gender identity through Freudian psychology, this obviously presents its own problems. That is not to say such a quality does not exist in the book. It does; but Lawrence did not write with the criteria of FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Oedipus complex in mind. LawrenceÃ¢â¬â ¢s theories about the role of the mother and her influence on masculine development must therefore have been coloured by other reading. Some of what Lawrence had read up to this point is documented by Jessie Chambers.
Mark twain is one of the best writers to use satire in his novels. In the novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, the author puts in a lot of angry and bemused satire. In this essay I will tell you some bemused satires and angry satire that the author uses. We will write a custom essay sample on The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Satire or any similar topic only for you Order Now I will also tell you what I think it means. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh yes this is a wonderful government, wonderful why looky here, there was a free nigger there from OhioÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ( The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Pg. 32). Pap said this right after he saw a free African American walking by. Pap also says Ã¢â¬Å"He had the whitest shirt on you ever see, too, and the shinest hat; and there ainÃ¢â¬â¢t a man in that town thatÃ¢â¬â¢s got as fine clothes as what he hadÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (pg. 32). He says this after he visited Huck. So what is Mark Twain trying to tell us here? I think he is trying to tell us that the people hate to see a slave walking freely, with better clothes then they have. The white people hate to see a black man living a better life then the white people. He is also mocking on how the northern states have outlawed slavery, and how the southern states couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do anything about it. This is angry satire because mark twain is angry at the people and the people and the government. Tom and Huck found the money that the robbers hid in the cave, and they both got 6 thousand dollars apiece from it. Huck at that time lived with the widow but he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like it so he ran away. The author stated Ã¢â¬Å"But tom sawyer, he hunted me up and said he was going to start a band of robbers, and I might join if I would go back to the widow and be respectableÃ¢â¬ (pg. 3). I think that Mark Twain is saying that when we were kids we were silly. The author says Ã¢â¬Å"Now says Ben Rogers, whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the line of business of this gang? Nothing only robbery and murder, Tom saidÃ¢â¬ (pg. 11). Mark Twain is trying to tell us that when we were kids we were stupid and had a big imagination. This is a bemused type of satire because it is funny how the kids acted. So far I have told you some of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s bemused and angry satires. I have also told you what I think these Quotes mean. Now that you have seen them, the author used a lot more good ones in the novel. Now it is your turn to try to find satire quotes in the novel. How to cite The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Satire, Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
General Psychology Reflection Paper on the Sleep palsy in striplings: The Ã¢â¬Ëa dead organic structure climbed on top of meÃ¢â¬â¢ phenomenon in Mexico The writers for this scholarly article. Ã¢â¬Å"Sleep palsy in striplings: The Ã¢â¬Ëa dead organic structure climbed on top of meÃ¢â¬â¢ phenomenon in Mexico. Ã¢â¬ are Alejandro Jimenez-Genchi. Victor M. Avila-Rodriguez. Frida Sanchez. Blanca E. Vargas Terrez. and Alejandro Nenclares-Portocarrero. The article is from the Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. volume 63. pages 546-549 and was available online last 2009. Sleep palsy ( SP ) is characterized by the incapableness to travel for a short period of clip at the early phases of slumber. Some civilizations use conversational looks to depict the SP experience. In Mexico. Mexicans uses the look Ã¢â¬Ëa dead organic structure climbed on top of meÃ¢â¬â¢ to picture a phenomenon that seems to be tantamount to SP. The purpose of this survey is to place the rate an d features of SP in striplings utilizing a common people look. We will write a custom essay sample on Sleep Paralysis Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Since the phenomenon is most frequently seen in adolescence. the research workers invited 322 striplings from different high schools in Mexico City to take part. They completed an Epworth Sleepiness Scale ( ESS ) and an SP questionnaire which asks if they already heard about the phenomenon and have experienced it. With all the gathered information. the research workers were shocked to happen out that 92. 5 % of the participants heard about the phenomenon while 27. 6 % of them had experienced it. 61 % had experienced 2 or more episodes during their life-time. The difference and similarities of this conversational look and sleep palsy is emphasized in the treatment portion. Folk descriptions are said to capture motor and hallucinatory nature of SP while clinical descriptions gaining control merely the motor characteristics. If merely indispensable characteristics of SP which is the inability to travel or talk were considered. research workers would obtain a lower prevalence rate in the whole sample. Surprisingly. rates in this survey are consistent to the rate of other surveies which involves SP expressed utilizing a conversational look like in China and Japan. There are certain factors that limit the credibleness of this survey. First. informations were obtained from fickle sample of striplings which belongs to a population that uses a conversational look in mentioning to SP. Second. informations were based from self-reported questionnaires completed by the striplings which are dwelling of inquiries that sometimes are misinterpreted. Discrepancies in this survey are ineluctable because of the method used by the research workers. It leads to a decision that the SP is often experienced by striplings which is sometimes accompanied by hallucinations. Of all the sleep upsets known to adult male. sleep palsy is the least understood ( Hurd. 2010 ) . Sleep Paralysis is a normal. natural bodily map that causes our physical organic structures to be paralyzed during slumber ( Peterson. 2005 ) . It is misinterpreted as an unnatural or chilling experience because of the presence of its indispensable characteristic characterized by the inability to travel or talk. Sleep palsy ( SP ) is a phenomenon where the musculuss are paralyzed which causes the organic structure unable to travel. It occurs during the early phases of REM sleep or even upon rousing. The phenomenon merely lasts for a minute or two but even though itÃ¢â¬â¢s merely enduring for a short period of clip and is said to be normal. sing SP might be truly scaring. The chief ground why we experience sleep palsy is that it prevents us to move out our dreams or hurt ourselves while woolgathering by paralysing the musculuss. It is when our heads are fully-awake and witting to the milieus but your organic structure is paralyzed. SP normally happens when our encephalons responds faster than our organic structure. What makes SP more terrifying is the presence of hallucinations which is most of the clip appears in chilling signifiers. Two old ages ago since the first clip I had cognition and heard about SP. Since so. my wonder didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stopped trouble oneselfing me about SP and its nature. I have so many inquiries in my head that until I did this survey remained unreciprocated like Ã¢â¬Å"How that is possible that your head is fully-awake but your organic structure is unab le to travel? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What does it experience like? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why and when does it go on? Ã¢â¬ etc. I started to look for information and facts about SP to fulfill my wonder. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t fail to happen such things that made SP more interesting to analyze. I was more astonied when I found out that SP is used in presenting yourself to lucid woolgathering. I was struck by the article IÃ¢â¬â¢ve read on a web log site that you can be able to command your dreams and your psyche will be separated from your organic structure. I was so hypnotized that even I wanted to see it without cognizing what the danger of SP might convey. And so with that. I started to delve deeper facts about SP because my old beginnings might be undependable. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t waste this chance to cognize more about what I like to happen out. When we were asked to hold our contemplation about an article which is related to Psychology. I thought approximately this because I know that I can do a good 1 because IÃ¢â¬â¢m interested with it. As I started to look for more dependable beginnings. I found out that my old cognition about the phenomenon is incorrect. Before. I thought that SP is an astonishing experience but when I visited personal web logs of people narrating their SP experience. they said that it is the chilling thing that happened to them. For person like me who havenÃ¢â¬â¢t experienced SP yet. depicting it is truly a difficult undertaking. I even have to confer with personal web logs and utilize my imaginativeness. In the diary article that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve used. research workers have found out that SP is most common in striplings. The rates of Mexican striplings who experienced SP are consistent to the rates of other surveies about striplings in Japan and China sing the same phenomenon. Sleep palsy occurs most frequently after jet slowdown or periods of wakefulness that interrupt the normal REM forms. or after alterations in slumber forms. It affects both sexes every bit and occurs at all ages but is most common in adolescents ( MedTerms. 2011 ) . Based from my apprehension. adolescents are more prone to see SP because its causes are most likely seen in them. An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s reading of SP may depend on their cultural account or the belief system of the individual ( Murphy A ; Egan. 2010 ) . In the diary article IÃ¢â¬â¢ve chosen. chosen striplings came from a state which uses a common people look to depict the SP experience. Based on what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve read. I think that it affects the rates the research worker got. They think that they would acquire lower rates if the indispensable characteristic of SP is the merely 1 considered. Clinical descriptions captures the motor characteristics of SP while folk descriptions like the one being used by the Mexicans captures the motor and hallucinatory consequence of SP. I would besides state that samples used in this experiment are non dependable plenty particularly with the method used in this survey which is the study method. We can non overlook the fact that some inquiries might be misunderstood by the participants and since it is a take-home questionnaire. honestness among them is non guaranteed. The first clip I saw the rubric of the article ( Ã¢â¬ËA dead organic structure climbed on top of meÃ¢â¬â¢ ) . I was frightened. I think that there are certain grounds why they used that description. Based on some personal narratives of people who have experienced the phenomenon that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve read. the victim feels unable to travel because of the feeling that something heavy is lying/sitting on them. The ground sleep palsy may explicate narratives of shades and foreigners is the strong sense of a presence. normally harmful. that victims normally feel during an onslaught. They besides report unusual kinaesthetic esthesiss. such as feelings of being dragged out of bed. vibrating. winging or falling. These episodes can sometimes take to matured out-of-body experiences ( Evans A ; French. 2009 ) . SP could be prevented but it can non be escaped. It was said that a individual will see at least one episode during their life-time. SP is normal until itÃ¢â¬â¢s non a mark of narcolepsy. To the best of my cognition. this happens more frequently upon waking up. Basically. your head wakes up before your organic structure does. Finally. your organic structure catches up to your head and wakes up excessively. All we need to make to non to see such creepy sleep upsets is non to upset our slumber forms and agenda. We should obtain complete hours of slumber particularly us. adolescents who largely experience SP. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s dismaying to see two or more episodes of this phenomenon in our life-time. Though itÃ¢â¬â¢s normal. it could be truly terrorizing to see being paralyzed while we are asleep. Mentions Bob Peterson ( 2005. August ) . What Everyone Should Know About Sleep Paralysis. AS and OBEs. From the World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. robertpeterson. org/asp. htm Gillian Murphy A ; Jonathan Egan ( 2010. March ) . Sleep Paralysis and Hallucinations: What Clinicans Need to Know. From the World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. lenus. ie/hse/bitstream/10147/111896/1/IPMarch2010. pdf Medical Footings ( 2009 ) Definition of Sleep Paralysis. From the World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. medterms. com/script/main/art. asp? articlekey=9806 Ryan Hurd ( 2010 ) . The Sleep Paralysis Report. Retrieved 2010 from the World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //dreamstudies. org/wpcontent/uploads/2010/11/Sleep-Paralysis-Report-2010. pdf Scientific American. Randolph W. Evans A ; Christopher French ( 2009. January ) . Ask the Brains: What Is Sleep Paralysis? From the World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. scientificamerican. com/arti cle. cfm? id=ask-the-brains-sleep-paralysis
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
The Code of Hammurabi The overall success in any society largely depends on the order and the stability in that society. Of course, the prosperity of any particular civilization is based on the stability of the economy in that civilization. But the laws and the basic moral principles have a huge influence on economy and on overall welfare of the people. The laws should include sections on social, moral, religious, civil, commercial, and criminal law. The laws reflect the level of development of the society at the specific period of time. Laws cannot be perfect and they cannot equally protect everyone, but the societies that live by the laws have numerous advantages over those that don't. The laws make a society civilized.Code of laws of HammurabiHammurabi was the ruler of the Old Babylonian Empire, during the 18th century BCE. He was a smart military leader and legislator. He developed the first known legal code in history, Hammurabi's Code. He clearly understood the importance of the jurisprudence system and even put his code of laws among his most significant accomplishments. Hammurabi made his set of laws public, clearly explaining what was required of the citizens, and what the punishments were for not following these laws. Although the system of justice was not applied equally to all during the time of Hammurabi, the laws were fair, considering the times and the society of that time. One of the most well known aspects of the code is the principle "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth". So, for example, if someone has plucked out a neighbor's eye he would have his eye removed.Unfortunately, just like in any other civilization at that time, lower classes of people were not treated equally to the higher classes of aristocrats. Of course, no one could get away...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Helium Facts (Atomic Number 2 or He) Helium is atomic number 2 on the periodic table, with the element symbol He. It is a colorless, flavorless gas, best known for its use in filling floating balloons. Here is a collection of facts about this lightweight, interesting element: Helium Element Facts Helium Atomic Number: 2 Helium Symbol: He Helium Atomic Weight: 4.002602(2) Helium Discovery: Janssen, 1868, some sources say Sir William Ramsey, Nils Langet, P.T. Cleve 1895 Helium Electron Configuration: 1s2 Word Origin: Greek: helios, sun. Helium was first detected as a new spectral line during a solar eclipse, so it is named for the Greek Titan of the Sun. Isotopes: 9 isotopes of helium are known. Only two isotopes are stable: helium-3 and helium-4. While the isotopic abundance of helium varies depending on geographical location and source, 4He accounts for nearly all of the natural helium. Properties: Helium is a very light, inert, colorless gas. Helium has the lowest melting point of any element. It is the only liquid that cannot be solidified by lowering the temperature. It remains liquid down to absolute zero at ordinary pressures, but can be solidified by increasing the pressure. The specific heat of helium gas is unusually high. The density of helium vapor at the normal boiling point is also very high, with the vapor expanding greatly when heated to room temperature. Although helium normally has a valence of zero, it has a weak tendency to combine with certain other elements. Uses: Helium is widely used in cryogenic research because its boiling point is near absolute zero. It is used in the study of superconductivity, as an inert gas shield for arc welding, as a protective gas in growing silicon and germanium crystals and producing titanium and zirconium, for pressuring liquid fuel rockets, for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as a cooling medium for nuclear reactors, and as a gas for supersonic wind tunnels. A mixture of helium and oxygen is used as an artificial atmosphere for divers and others working under pressure. Helium is used for filling balloons and blimps. Sources: Except for hydrogen, helium is the most abundant element in the universe. It is an important component in the proton-proton reaction and the carbon cycle, which account for the energy of the sun and stars. Helium is extracted from natural gas. In fact, all natural gas contains at least trace quantities of helium. The fusion of hydrogen into helium is the sources of a hydrogen bombs energy. Helium is a disintegration product of radioactive substances, so it is found in ores of uranium, radium, and other elements. Most of Earths helium dates back to the planets formation, although a small amount falls to Earth within cosmic dust and some is produced via beta decay of tritium. Health Effects: Helium serves no biological function. Trace amounts of the element are found in human blood. While helium is considered to be non-toxic, it displaces oxygen so inhaling it can lead to hypoxia or asphyxiation. Fatalities from inhaling helium are rare. Liquid helium is a cryogenic liquid, so risks include frostbite from exposure and explosion from expansion if the liquid is stored in a sealed container. The mixture of helium and oxygen (heliox) can cause high-pressure nervous syndrome, however the addition of nitrogen can remedy the issue. Compounds: Because a helium atom has a valence of zero, it has extremely low chemical reactivity. However, unstable compounds called excimers can be formed when electricity is applied to the gas. HeH is stable in its ground state, but it is the strongest known Bronsted acid, capable of protonating any species it encounters. Van der Waals compounds form with cryogenic helium gas, such as LiHe. Element Classification: Noble Gas or Inert Gas Usual Phase: gas Density (g/cc): 0.1786 g/L (0 Ã °C, 101.325 kPa) Liquid Density (g/cc): 0.125 g/mL (at its boiling point) Melting Point (Ã °K): 0.95 Boiling Point (Ã °K): 4.216 Critical Point: 5.19 K, 0.227 MPa Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 31.8 Ionic Radius: 93 Specific Heat (20Ã °C J/g mol): 5.188 Heat of Fusion: 0.0138 kJ/mol Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 0.08 First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 2361.3 Lattice Structure: Hexagonal Lattice Constant (Ãâ¦): 3.570 Lattice C/A Ratio: 1.633 Crystal Structure: close-packed hexagonal Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic CAS registry number: 7440-59-7 Quiz: Ready to test your helium facts knowledge? Take the Helium Facts Quiz. References Meija, J.; et al. (2016). Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265Ã¢â¬â91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305Shuen-Chen Hwang, Robert D. Lein, Daniel A. Morgan (2005). Noble Gases. Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley. pp. 343Ã¢â¬â383. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0701190508230114.a01.Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. Return to the Periodic Table
Friday, February 14, 2020
Economics - Essay Example The short-run or long-run of one industry is often different from another. (Moffatt, 2011) A given firmÃ¢â¬â¢s costs may be reliant upon the time or period under consideration. Most of the decisions are fixed when a short-run time frame is taken into account and thus the long-run and short-run cost curves are different. Short-run costs and costs in the long-run are, however, related. For instance, a long-run average cost curve is more flat in comparison to a Ã¢â¬ËUÃ¢â¬â¢ shaped short-run average cost curve. Short-run cost curves usually lie upon the long-run cost curves. Figure1. A graphical illustration of a short-run cost and a long-run cost curves Average costs LATC SATC1 SATC2 SATC3 Quantity Note: SATC stands for Short-run Average Total Costs while LATC stands for Long-run Average Total Costs. Short-run Average Total Costs of a firm differ from the Long-run Average Total Costs since the fixed costs in the short-run can be varied over the long-run. (Mankiw, 2008 p256) In the case of an operator of a port, cost efficiency occurs efficiency occurs where the throughput is made available at the lowest cost possible with resource-prices paid by the operator put into consideration. The economic cost of a port is represented by the relationship depicted by minimum costs of handling any given throughput levels. Over the short-run time period, there must be at least one of the port resources that should be fixed with regards to amount. For example, the buildings or the wharf of a port are some of the resources that cannot be varied in the short-run period. Unit costs in relation to a portÃ¢â¬â¢s costs are usually compared by dividing them with their throughput amounts. Figure 2: A graphical presentation of Short-run Total Costs, Short-run Variable Costs and Short-run Fixed Costs. That is; STC, SVC and SFC. Cost STC SVC SFC Port throughput Figure 3: Average costs in the short-run Cost per unit SATC SAVC SAFC Port throughput Note that SATC stands for Short-run Average Total Costs, SAVC for Short-run Average Variable Costs and SAFC for Short-run Fixed Costs. Short-run average total cost is gotten by dividing short-run total cost with throughput. On the other hand short-run average fixed cost is the short-run fixed costs divided by the throughput and short-run average variable cost is short-run variable cost divided by throughput. Average fixed cost reduces in a continuous manner as the level of throughput rises; that is, since a fixed cost continues to be divided by bigger and bigger amounts of throughput of the port. As the amount of throughput rises, average variable cost as well as short-run average cost reduce initially, get to a minimum and afterwards rise. In the portÃ¢â¬â¢s long-run, the costs in whole are variable. Therefore, long-run total costs that are incurred by the operator of the port of the port for the given throughput amounts are a total of variable costs. Long-run average total costs are equal to long-run total costs d ivided by total portÃ¢â¬â¢s throughput. A long-run average total cost curve has a negative slope for a given range of throughput and then it starts to increase. Figure 4: Long-run Total Cost curve and a Long-run Average Total Cost Curve. cost port throughput cost per unit LATC Port throughput (Talley, 2009 pp98-100) A convenience store is usually a type of retail business. Costs of a convenience store that maybe short-run may include costs of